Are We Sanctified?
Based on the message of imputed and imparted righteousness in Christ, which I frequently teach and write about, questions on the nature and process of sanctification have arisen for many people. We are learning that we are not on a lifelong journey from impure to pure—a slow purging of the old, sinful nature, only to be suddenly concluded at death.
Holy Spirit does not share His new temple (you) with the old, sinful nature. He is not fighting it out with the old man in a lifelong battle, as though somehow the third person of the Trinity is only equal in power to the Adamic nature. To conclude this belittles Holy Spirit and is a misrepresentation of God. Just as Jesus is not unequally yoked, neither is Holy Spirit. A holy God only lives in a holy temple.
The depth of our relationship with God can be hindered or empowered by what we believe about Christian sanctification.
“Three P” Sanctification
The view of sanctification most clearly influenced by the Reformation era (not discounting some influence from early Church Fathers) can be called “Three P” sanctification. This view can be broken into three main elements of sanctification. Positional (past), progressive (present), and perfect (future) sanctification. Here is a quick breakdown of each of these elements:
1. Positional (Past) Sanctification – This is the first step of our sanctification and it takes place at our rebirth. This is much like imputed justification. There are many Scriptures that indicate we are already sanctified (past tense). Theologians unanimously agree there is at least some form of sanctification that has already taken place (1 Corinthians 6:11, 1:30; Hebrews 10:10, and many more). However, this view limits it to a positional sanctification.
Because other passages indicate aspects of sanctification do not instantly occur (even positionally), we have to come up with suitable language to explain these. In this case, it’s been labelled progressive sanctification. Positional language emerges. Common conclusions are: “We are both sanctified and being sanctified,” and “saved and being saved.”
2. Progressive (Present) Sanctification – Now that we are positionally set apart, considered by God as saints (but not actually saints), we embark on a progressive purging of the old nature, slowly conforming ourselves to the image of Christ with the help of Holy Spirit. The consensus is that death alone is the finish line of this progression. Passages used to argue this progression are valid (such as 1 Thessalonians 4:3, 5:23; Romans 6:19; Hebrews 10:14). However, the nature of the progression from the old man into the new man is misguided, as we have seen.
3. Perfect (Future) Sanctification – Eventually the progression ends with death. We have hopefully made progress in our sanctification as Christians through our slow removal of the old man, death to ourselves every day, and our fight against the sinful nature inside us. Our perfect sanctification then occurs, swiftly perfecting us by the grace of God from whatever stage we are at when we die. This is when we get our final state of perfection, our entire freedom from sin, and the sinful nature we never had access to in life.
You are probably familiar with this “Three P” concept, even though a variety of terms can explain it. A classic picture of “Three P” sanctification is presented in John Bunyan’s famous book The Pilgrim’s Progress. There are many modern teachers of this view. It is heavily influenced by the theology of Martin Luther, with arguments being largely rooted in Romans 7 as a key conclusive argument for the ongoing battle with sin and progressive sanctification. We have already seen this conclusion is flawed because Romans 7 (v. 14–25) is not referring to the Christian experience. I agree with Luther and modern teachers of “Three P” sanctification that there is a progressive aspect to our righteousness being lived out, as I have written about and will look at below. But this is not accurately reflected in an ongoing transitional process of sanctification from the old man into the new man.
Some who teach this “Three P” view do so to preserve the beauty of practical holiness, from some unfortunate excesses being taught in modern circles, leading people to complacency.
They want to provoke a pursuit of manifest holiness in the church. I highly value the heart of this and share this same pursuit. However, this does not make the view scripturally accurate, rather it can limit people from true holiness.
“One P” Sanctification
1. Perfect (Present and Future) Sanctification
“One P” sanctification skips straight over the positional and progressive sanctification ideas and believes there is only perfect sanctification. People who hold this stance strongly deny positional paradigms and paradoxes, reasoning our scriptural sanctification is actual, making it perfect; or nonexistent, meaning we are not even redeemed to begin with, removing all middle ground. They use the same Scripture verses used by “Three P” proponents that show our sanctification, but remove any idea of a mere positional participation, arguing it is as real in our inner man as the air we breathe and the bodies we live in.
People teaching this idea are sometimes termed “modern grace” teachers, but the view is not limited to this circle.
By using compelling Scriptures like the following, some argue sanctification must be perfect, once and for all, at the point of salvation:
“And because of him you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, righteousness and sanctification and redemption.” ~ 1 Corinthians 1:30
This verse states Jesus became our sanctification—not our lifelong process, but our one-time setting apart. Where “Three P” adherents would call this “positional,” the “One P” adherents call it “perfect,” arguing it is unfathomable to limit the beauty of Christ’s redemption to an intangible, unattainable positional language. I agree with this argument.
“For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, for it is made holy (hagiazō) by the word of God and prayer.” ~ 1 Timothy 4:4–5
The primary Greek word used for sanctification is hagiazō. It means “to separate from profane things and dedicate to God,” or “to purify by expiation: free from the guilt of sin, to purify internally by renewing of the soul.”[i] The word used here refers to praying for food about to be eaten. It takes only a moment to “sanctify” our dinner, so why would it take a lifetime to sanctify ourselves?
“Do you say of him whom the Father consecrated (hagiazō) and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?” ~ John 10:36
Now Jesus is referred to as having been sanctified. This throws real spanners in our theological wheels if sanctification is a progressive purging of the sinful nature that lasts until death. Jesus is eternally perfect. He did not become perfect at the incarnation; He always had been. He was “set apart” by the Father for a mission on the earth; this does not mean He underwent what we have believed progressive sanctification is.
Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who practice homosexuality, nor thieves, nor the greedy, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.” ~ 1 Corinthians 6:9-11
Again, here we seem to have been totally sanctified by Holy Spirit through the name of Jesus at rebirth, not through a lifelong process. We can see there is clear evidence for a real purifying, setting apart, and cleansing that happened when we were born again. If we remove the Romans 7 influence and positional thinking around these ideas, it can have tangible effects in our lives that need not take a lifetime of incremental attainment.
I see scriptural merit in this view.
Many who oppose this idea fear this paradigm leads to sinful living and removes a pursuit of self-control and discipline. Certainly, for some, it does.
I think this is sometimes more the fault of the hearers than of the preachers. Some people are seeking to gather teachers to suit their twisted, deceived paradigms. You can find an excuse to live in sin even in the most legalistic sermons around if you are looking for it.
The heart of a “One P” message is usually a genuine desire to see people liberated from self-effort and religious bondage rather than to encourage sinful living.
However, I do not agree with all the methods or language of those who hold to “One P” sanctification.
This “One P” stance holds there is no such thing as progressive sanctification. I agree sanctification is not progressive in the sense we are slowly ridding ourselves of the sinful nature to become more like Christ, but let’s now look at a final way of seeing this below.
“Two P” Sanctification
“Two P” Sanctification is the most Scripturally sound approach to Sanctification.
You have probably guessed “Two P” sanctification does not start with positional sanctification, but like the “One P” paradigm, it starts with perfect sanctification. However, it has an equally critical second “p” to it, to bring scriptural health and clarity to perfect sanctification, taking this from intangible theology to a renewed, healthy Christian lifestyle.
1. Perfect (Present and Future) Sanctification – We must remove the misguided Romans 7 lens and the positional language that passages like it have inspired, along with the influence of our experience, which we may have given too much say in the matter. Only then can we see sanctification is perfect. It happened, not just philosophically, but actually. We have seen this in the argument of the “One P” paradigm. This is what it means to have been translated from the domain “of darkness into the kingdom of the Son of His love” (Colossians 1:13). It means you are “set apart.” Your sins are “as far as the east from the west” (Psalms 103:12). “You were darkness, but you are now light in the Lord” (Ephesians 5:8).
The definition of biblical sanctification is that you are set apart. You were purified, washed, and cleansed from sin at the point of salvation. Forbid your experience of ongoing, progressive sanctification to dictate the truth to you and submit your experience to the scriptural reality of your perfect sanctification. This is when practical sanctification kicks in, the second and equally important aspect of “Two P” sanctification.
2. Practical (Present and Future) Sanctification – Another Greek word for sanctification is hagiasmos.[ii] it comes from the same Greek root as the words we have already looked at. The verses most commonly referred to that argue a progressive sanctification usually use this word instead of the previous word hagiazō (1 Thessalonians 4:3; 5:23; Romans 6:19). Hagiasmos, though, has more to do with us living out our perfect sanctification than it does with us attaining it to begin with. A misunderstanding of this Greek word, and our previous conclusions of Romans 7, have led us to our progressive idea of sanctification.
Strong’s Concordance defines hagiasmos as “the effect of consecration.”[iii] It is the exhibiting of our already perfect sanctification. Because we are perfectly sanctified (hagiazō), we must now pursue to practically express that sanctification (hagiasmos).
God is as concerned with us living out our practical sanctification as He is with giving us our perfect sanctification.
God does not separate the two. You are sanctified perfectly on the inside (hagiazō) so that you can live sanctified on the outside (hagiasmos).
You have partaken of the divine nature, replacing the sinful nature, been set apart, and united yourself to Jesus Christ in one spirit (1 Corinthians 6:17).
Now you are called to manifest your purity.
This does not happen by slowly purging the old man; Jesus already did that. In the same way, a human baby is born with everything necessary to be a functioning human and then he learns to use what he has. The baby does not become more human as he develops; he is fully human to begin with. For Christians, this growth happens by embracing the truth in humility and intimacy, growing in understanding, and staying in faith in the face of opposing circumstances or temptations. Then we will see increasing evidence of our perfect sanctification in our daily lives. We develop increasingly in character, maturity, and discipline, but we do not slowly put off the sinful nature and become more like Christ until we die. That happened at conversion.
Your sanctification is not something you are developing, but something you are discovering and learning to display.
Let’s look at verses commonly used to promote progressive sanctification, but with practical sanctification in mind instead:
“For this is the will of God, your sanctification (hagiasmos): that you abstain from sexual immorality; that each one of you know how to control his own body in holiness (hagiasmos) and honor, not in the passion of lust like the Gentiles who do not know God; that no one transgress and wrong his brother in this matter, because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as we told you beforehand and solemnly warned you. For God has not called us for impurity, but in holiness (hagiasmos).” ~ 1 Thessalonians 4:3–7
The word hagiasmos is translated as sanctification three times in this passage, and it always refers to practical living, not the state of our inner man. It does not represent a purging of the sinful nature but a purging of sinful living. This means God’s will is that you would pursue living out your already perfect sanctification.
Essentially, the message is, “You are an eagle, so don’t act like a chicken!”
Because of positional mindsets, we have previously concluded this passage creates a paradox for sanctification, meaning we are saved and being saved at the same time. We need to rightly understand the Greek word instead and see this is a practical term, not a progressive or positional one.
Paul compelled us to express our perfect sanctification by engaging in practical holiness, the expression of our sanctification—to live “set apart” because we are set apart. The same word is often translated for the word “holiness” and used in instances referring to our lifestyle and practices, not to our nature.
“I am speaking in human terms, because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification (hagiasmos).” ~ Romans 6:19
The reason righteousness leads to sanctification is that righteousness represents your new nature and empowers you to live free from sin. This is not implying righteousness leads you to a slow and lifelong purging of the sinful nature, but rather a practical display of your already present holiness. You can see how this changes things, right? This is not a paradox at all. It is simple.
“But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the fruit you get leads to sanctification (hagiasmos) and its end, eternal life.” ~ Romans 6:22
This verse says we are set free from sin and have become slaves of God. That means we are set apart, the exact essence of sanctification. This leads to fruitfulness in practical sanctification—the expression of our new holy nature in our lives as we grow in understanding and diligence in the truth.
We need to change our minds from lies to the truth so we can live holy lives.
We need to fight the fight of faith. However, we need not purge the sinful nature so we can become holy. God did this for us.
Our sanctification is perfect at conversion and there is also a process of growing in maturity which helps our practical sanctification manifest. Because we have put off the misunderstandings of an indwelling sinful nature, we are seeing people grow into this maturity extremely fast.
I know people who have given themselves to a pursuit of this truth who live consistently transformed lives in a matter of weeks.
It can be a challenge to embrace the truth, even when long-term feelings and thoughts are trying to convince us the transition has not happened in our nature. But when we stand firm in the faith, growing in intimacy with the Father, these behaviours fall away.
The process of growth in this paradigm is no longer restricted to a lifelong one. How long does it take to believe?
How long does it take to choose the truth instead of lies, to choose intimacy and holiness? This does not mean you cannot fall from truth, fall into sin, or live in deception. This does not mean you can’t be deceived and stumble as you are learning to express your new life. We must remain vigilant and disciplined in the truth.
Believing is a present tense responsibility.
The consistency, holiness, love, and freedom we can have is far more rapid and available than we ever imagined. I love watching the gospel work in people’s lives in a rapid way. It is extremely satisfying seeing Jesus honoured with radical freedom in people’s lives.
Preserved and Perfected
Saints are sanctified. In fact, the same Greek root used for the word saint (hagios),[iv] is also used for the word sanctified (hagiazō).[v] This means the Bible could not rightly call us saints if we were not actually sanctified unless the sixty-plus times we are called saints is a strictly imputed or positional title, which is quite silly when you think about it. The Greek word hagios literally means “most holy thing, pure, morally blameless, holy one, sacred.” That is quite a title! When we partake of the divine nature in our regeneration, we become saints. We move from dark to light (Ephesians 5:8), we are set free from sin (Romans 6:7, 18, 22) and we are made holy and blameless (Ephesians 1:4; Colossians 1:22).
“In the same way, a man can never be called a husband until he is married, a Christian can never be called a saint until he is sanctified.” ~ Mitchell Ramsey
The reason the Bible calls us saints so frequently is because we have been sanctified. There is no other way to see this. We are set apart and have become saints. There are no varying degrees of sainthood.
In the same way you cannot be 99 percent faithful to your spouse but cheat on him or her once a year, you cannot be 99 percent holy either. That would still just be called unholy.
“Hagiazō is usually rendered ‘make holy, sanctify, consecrate.’ In the NT, this verb expresses the action of including a person or a thing in the sphere of what is holy in either a ritual (ceremonial) and moral sense. Thus ‘to make holy’ is to set apart individuals or objects for special use by God. Both individual Christians (1 Corinthians 6:11) and the church (1 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 5:26) are sanctified or set apart for such service to God.”[vi] ~ Mounce’s Expository Dictionary
Even Mounce’s appears to boil this down to a conversion event, moving us from that of being morally unclean to morally clean. This is an instant transition, not a lifelong one.
Let’s look at two important passages on this topic, showing you are both preserved and perfected regarding sanctification:
“Now may the God of peace himself sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit and soul and body be kept (tēreō) blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.” ~ 1 Thessalonians 5:23
When looking at 1 Thessalonians 5:23, Paul’s closing benediction can appear to be a petition on our behalf for a sanctification process for our entire being. The problem is the word “kept” (tēreō) makes this impossible.[vii] This word means “to keep, one in the state in which he is.” It means to preserve a thing. How can God be slowly sanctifying us spirit, soul, and body, but still preserving us in the exact state we are in? Is He preserving us in a process? That is an oxymoron.
God is preserving us as blameless.
Much like you do not preserve a nice jar of jam until you are content with the product, God has us in such a state that He now wants to preserve us in this blameless state and empower us to exhibit it. Let’s look at this verse again in the KJV translation for a more accurate view:
“And the very God of peace sanctify (Aorist) you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved (tēreō) blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.” ~ 1 Thessalonians 5:23 KJV
You can see here this is more of a statement of our complete sanctification than a petition to God to complete our sanctification. When looking at a KJV Greek-English interlinear Bible, the tense used for the Greek word for “sanctify” in this verse is aorist tense, meaning you cannot decisively interpret it to mean it is an ongoing or continuous use of the word.[viii] The aorist places no emphasis on the progress or length of an action, but only shows it occurs.
This verse communicates no process of purging, but makes a bold declaration of our sanctification and ends with the encouragement that God is preserving us in the state of purity.
Paul was, however, making a request to the Lord that we would be preserved blameless. This shows there is a possibility of our preservation being hindered or affected. There is an active involvement on our part, the involvement of faith and our human will for holiness, which enables God to preserve us in a partnership with our desires.
“For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified.” ~ Hebrews 10:14
It looks again here like we are becoming sanctified. Has God perfected us (made us complete), but we are also still being perfected (coming to completion)? This verse is often used to promote a positional and progressive case for sanctification. However, let’s compare two different translations to see it is accurate to translate the passage this way:
“For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified (hagiazō).” ~ Hebrews 10:14 ESV
“For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified (hagiazō).” ~ Hebrews 10:14 KJV
Wow! There are extremely different implications coming from two reputable translations. When we look a little closer at the Greek again, we find the words “are being” were not found in all the Greek manuscripts. The language of process was favoured by translators according to the traditional doctrine of sanctification and by their interpretation of the word hagiazō here. Now, note the statement the writer made just four verses before this:
“And by that will we have been sanctified (hagiazō) through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.” ~ Hebrews 10:10
Even the ESV translation presents sanctification as a finished event just a few verses earlier. So have we been sanctified by the will of God, only to be in the process of continual sanctification four verses later? No. To remain consistent, not just with the explicit message of our consecration in Christ, but with the context of Hebrews 10, the KJV stance on the Greek expression is more accurate.
For those who still argue in favour of the ESV on the Greek tense and expression of Hebrews 10:14, I suggest that in light of the explicit context of sanctification unpacked, this is not about individual Christians engaging in a lifelong process of purifying, but rather multiple people who are being sanctified as they come to a saving faith in Jesus at conversion. The expression for “those” and for “sanctified” are both plural in the verse’s verbs, meaning it could indicate many who are coming to accept Christ and being set apart, as much as it could mean an individual in a process.
An example of this would be if you were seeing multitudes of sick people miraculously healed in your life. You could say “sick people are being healed.” If I then took your statement to mean sick individuals are entering a process of healing, rather than many people being instantly healed, I would misunderstand your statement.
When you look with fresh eyes, it is clear a case for the progressive cleansing of the sinful nature cannot be confidently formed from these verses, even though they are some of the most popular ones to do so from.
Growing in Maturity
Am I against process or progression? Absolutely not.
As we have seen throughout Articles on this site, we are called to grow in maturity, discipline, character, understanding, intimacy, vigilance, and truth. The message of righteousness does not remove this Christian responsibility.
There is a process of maturity as Christians.
The key difference is we are not in the process of becoming new creations. We are learning to live life as the new creations we became when we first believed in Jesus. Also, this process need not take an entire life but is available at a rapid pace.
In Peter’s second epistle, he painted an excellent picture of how we should pursue maturity and encourage others in this. Take note that just as all the apostles do, Peter preceded his exhortation to live a holy life, with an encouraging reminder of our holy identity in Christ as the root of it all:
“His divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us to his own glory and excellence, by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world because of sinful desire.” ~ 2 Peter 1:3-4
Peter introduced his letter with a powerful reminder of our identity: we have all things pertaining to life and godliness; we have precious promises granted to us; we are partakers of God’s nature; and we have escaped the world’s corruption.
He did not stop at a beautiful declaration of our new life in Christ though.
That would be wonderful, but impractical. His readers needed advice for their day-to-day life, and so do we. How should we live now that we have partaken of the divine nature and been set free from corruption? Should we just sing songs about it and encourage each other intellectually with it but live no different than before?
Peter answered this powerfully in the following verses:
“For this very reason (because you have partaken of God’s nature, and you have all things for life and godliness), make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with steadfastness, and steadfastness with godliness, and godliness with brotherly affection, and brotherly affection with love. For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they keep you from being ineffective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” ~ 2 Peter 1:5–8
Peter did not tell us to become new creations, become holy, or die to the old man. This was already accomplished in Christ.
He said we must add to our faith the incredible qualities of Christian character listed above. He said we should not be ineffective or unfruitful in our knowledge of Jesus Christ. It is hypocrisy to have the language but not live a transformed life. We are called to increase in fruitfulness and effectiveness in our knowledge of our new lives.
We are called to exhibit it, not just verbalise it.
How do we do this without striving? We pursue understanding and intimacy with God. The natural response of knowing the truth and engaging with the Father, who loves holiness, is that we love holiness too. Then grace, empowered by Holy Spirit, makes these qualities manifest in our lives.
So what if Christians are not increasing in these qualities in their lives? Peter gave us a key reason they would have this deficit in the following verses:
“For whoever lacks these qualities is so nearsighted that he is blind, having forgotten that he was cleansed from his former sins. Therefore, brothers, be all the more diligent to confirm your calling and election, for if you practice these qualities you will never fall.” ~ 2 Peter 1:9-10
Here Peter gave the reason a Christian may live less than his inheritance and lack the qualities of Christian character. His reason was not that Christians were evil, deceitful, ungodly, or selfish people. He said a major reason someone lived in less than his identity was that he was “nearsighted unto blindness, having forgotten that he was cleansed from his former sins.” Some have forgotten they were co-crucified and co-resurrected in Christ, are righteousness, were cleansed from their sin, are new creations, and were translated from the domain of darkness into the kingdom of light.
They have lost sight of their identity (or in modern times, they may have not yet learned it).
Peter’s answer for this was an encouragement that his readers would confirm their “calling and election,” meaning they would develop an assurance of faith in who they are now, as those called by God, to build themselves up in their most holy faith so they could live out their faith on the earth.
Peter then explained how he intended to help them in this:
“Therefore I intend always to remind you of these qualities, though you know them and are established in the truth that you have. I think it right, as long as I am in this body, to stir you up by way of reminder.” ~ 2 Peter 1:12-13
Sounds a lot like a Hebrews 3:13 culture, right? We should remind each other of the truth always because it is safe and right to be reminded. Believing and walking in the truth comes from living with a clarified view of who we are in Christ.
We must develop a culture that expects the qualities of Christian character like never before, but makes identity the means by which these qualities are empowered.
What if we see people who claim this beautiful truth of their righteousness, but then live no differently than before, placing little value on actual freedom in their lives? I have encountered a few Christians who do not need to be reminded of their identity because they claim to know it already, but they are still living destructive lives. If they have no desire to live holy lives or to grow in character, then I suggest they have not meditated on and honoured the truth in their hearts enough to pursue the manifestation of their new lives. They may not have learned to know the Father yet, which motivates this desire for holiness. This needs to be addressed in love, but addressed.
Alternatively, more dangerously, they may live with a seared conscience.
Peter’s method of exhortation, reminder, and focus on identity applies to those who are soft of heart, willing for growth, and pursuing the manifestation of their identity. If people are not in a place where they desire holiness or are excusing rampant sinful behaviour with their theology, then they are in great danger and need correction from those who have access to them relationally or through leadership. I have highlighted consistently throughout my book that language alone means nothing if your life is not being changed or you are not walking with a soft heart toward God.
Your sanctification is final. Learn to live it to the fullest. Let your practical sanctification bring honour to God, who gave you your perfect sanctification for this reason. Let grace and love motivate you in every area of your life, learning to walk as a child of light because you are a child of light (Ephesians 5:8).
[i] Strong’s G0037
[ii] Strong’s G00438
[iii] Strong’s G0038
[iv] Strong’s G0040
[v] Precept Austin. “Greek Quick Reference Guide.” http://www.preceptaustin.org/greek_quick_reference_guide.
[vi] Bill Mounce, “Can Jesus Sanctify Himself?” https://www.billmounce.com/monday-with-mounce/can-jesus-sanctify-himself.
[vii] Strong’s G5083
[viii] Precept Austin. “Greek Quick Reference Guide.” http://www.preceptaustin.org/greek_quick_reference_guide.